In the beginning, the Fund Board initiated WTSS component as a pilot program on the principle that poverty is the causative factor of social (access to household production, information, participation in social organizations and finance); political (access to decision-making leading to affect lives of people) and psychological (self-confidence) disempowerment. However, it recognized increased women’s involvement to be critical for achieving full community ownership and realize it development objectives of health and hygiene benefits. Based on repeatedly witnessed linkage between women’s ability to earn income and their increased voice in family and community, the Fund Board included ‘Women Technical Support Service (WTSS) component for women empowerment. Findings from various studies and monitoring milestones have evinced that WTSS component has empowered the women to some extent. Likewise, there was high risk and low return investment due to lack of information of inputs and outputs, market opportunities and small amount of cash in their hand. Consequently, they were forced to look for opportunities of additional support and assistance (business development service, capability enhancement and access of credit facility) for their sustainable livelihood development. Experiences gained over the year's show that sustainable improvements in rural women’s incomes generally require (in addition the enabling conditions of improved infrastructure and connectivity to markets and information), two types of interventions, which can be delivered at the local level. One is sustainable financial service and the other is business development services (BDS). The WTSS component provided modest support that was intended to link women in the community to other programs offering these services. It is apparent that the linkage did not appear to be effective and the women beneficiaries are not always getting access to the guidance they need either to build sustainable financial services systems at the local level or to link with interested micro- finance intermediaries. From the very inception, the Fund Board’s intention towards WTSS component was to facilitate establishing linkages of women with other donor development programs focusing on income generation and women empowerment. Under this component, the Fund Board had allocated NRs. 10,000.00 per scheme site or NRs. 200.00 per member whichever is less, in order to support women for their capacity building and skills training. But that fund has been used as revolving fund (seed money) for economic activities, and particularly used for IGAs. The fund thus provided worked as a promoter of micro-finance services at the local level as resembling the feature of typical village bank, requiring some sort of fund management skills and system to do so. In most WTSS groups, book-keeping and accounting is quite poor, and the groups lack confidence and skill to manage to administer the money in a professional way. There is neither local capacity for record keeping nor system to train local people to maintain books of accounts. WTSS groups lack savings and lending policies and procedures, accounting system and pricing of products and services. However, WTSS has been working in isolation. Further, most of the SOs entrusted with the responsibility to manage WTSS component under WASH scheme lack adequate knowledge and skill. However, this concept does not take account into only production and market opportunities, but also it ensures required support for skill development.
The main objective of the Social Accountability (Jagaran Karyakram) is to make concerned organization more accountable for community development efforts. Specifically,